A machine that primarily boring a prefabricated hole in a workpiece with a boring tool. In general, the boring tool rotates as the main motion, and the boring tool or workpiece moves as a feed motion. It is mainly used to process high-precision holes or complete finishing of multiple holes at a time. In addition, it can also be used to process other processing surfaces related to hole finishing. The use of different tools and attachments also allows drilling, milling, cutting, and machining with higher surface quality than the drill press. Boring machines are the main equipment for the processing of large box parts. Threads and outer diameters, end faces, etc.
Structure and characteristics
1. The long hole boring represented by the coaxial hole system of the box part is one of the most important contents in metal cutting processing. Although there are still examples of long hole boring by means of boring dies, guide bushes, bench-boring boring machines, post-supporting long boring bars, or manually correcting workpiece rotation by 180°, in recent years, due to CNC boring and boring machines, The use of a large number of machining centers has greatly improved the coordinate positioning accuracy of various types of horizontal milling and boring machines and the accuracy of rotary indexing of worktables. The long hole boring has gradually been turned by a highly efficient table and turned 180°. The mass production and application of an area-shaped bed layout or a numerically-controlled planer-milling and boring machine, which allows the table to rotate 180° from the positioning of the machine, is almost the only method of boring a long hole on the machine. .
2. Concentricity error and compensation for the boring hole in the upright post feed
The main factors influencing the concentricity of the boring and boring of the milling and boring machine are the same as those of the table-type milling and boring machine. It is also the division error of the table turning 180° and the axis of the semi-long hole d1 that has been twisted before the turning head. The other half d2 of the elongate hole coincides with the axis of the boring axis, and the required table travels (x) to move the position error dx2 of Lx=2lx. And before and after the table is turned 180°, the inclination error df generated in the xy coordinate plane of the table, the inclination error dy generated in the yz plane and the translation error dy generated in the y direction, are also the same for the planer-type milling boring machine. Shaft degree is an important factor. However, the influence of the spatial position of the axis of the boring axis on the concentricity of the boring hole of the tuner head is usually different from that of a desktop boring and milling boring machine that is usually fed by a traverse.
3. Reasonable determination of the vertical position of the column when the stern shaft is fed
When confronted with a specific situation, the milling and boring machine must fix the column at a suitable position on the longitudinal bed, and when the boring axis is used to extend the tool as a feeding mode for the boring, the axis of the boring axis and the nominal axis of the boring hole are at xz. The intersection angle error db in the plane, the intersection angle error dg in the yz plane, as well as the desktop milling and boring machine, has an important influence on the concentricity of the boring hole of the tune head, and with the increase of the feed length of the boring axis, the enthalpy axis weight Caused by the lower deflection of the mast, it also has a greater impact on the coaxiality of the boring hole. Unlike table-type milling and boring machines, when the boring axis of the boring mill is extended out of the boring hole, the longitudinally movable column must be fixed on the longitudinal bed to a certain position, and it is important that this position can and should be select.
4, the reasonable position of the tool on the boring
When the boring machine is used to feed the boring head in the boring machine, the boring tool mounted on the arbor of the boring shaft has a reasonable position in the Z direction. On the one hand, the distance from the slewing center of the tool nose to the front surface of the spindle box is slightly greater than Half of the full length of the hole (the youngest will not be able to open the long hole, but if it is too large, the rigidity of the 镗 axis will decrease); on the other hand, the center of rotation of the tool tip should be satisfied at the intersection of the axis of the 镗 axis and the vertical movement line of the column. O and so on.
Classification of trampolines (by structure and objects processed)
Horizontal boring machine
Horizontal boring machine is the most widely used boring machine. It is mainly used for hole machining. The precision of boring hole can reach IT7, and the surface roughness Ra is 1.6-0.8um. The main parameter of horizontal boring machine is spindle diameter. The boring axis is horizontally arranged and axially fed. The spindle box moves vertically along the front pillar guide, and the table moves in the longitudinal or transverse direction for boring processing. This type of machine tool is widely used and economical. It is mainly used for hole machining of box (or bracket) parts and other machining surfaces related to holes.
Coordinate boring machine
The coordinate boring machine is a kind of high-precision machine tool. Its structural features are precision measuring devices with coordinate positions. The coordinate boring machine can be divided into single-column coordinate boring machine, double-column coordinate boring machine and horizontal coordinate boring machine.
The boring machine has a precise coordinate positioning device, which is mainly used for boring the size, shape, and especially the hole system with higher requirements for position accuracy. It can also be used for precision coordinate measurement, template scribe, scale and other work.
Single-column coordinate boring machine: The main shaft drives the tool for rotating main movement, and the main shaft sleeve makes feed movement in the axial direction. Features: Simple structure, easy operation, especially suitable for processing precision holes of plate parts, but its rigidity is poor, so this structure is only suitable for small and medium-sized coordinate boring machine.
Double-column coordinate boring machine: The main shaft is equipped with a tool for the main movement, and the workpiece is mounted on the work table along the table to make a longitudinal straight line movement along the bed rail. Its rigidity is better, and currently large-scale coordinate boring machines use this structure. The main parameter of the double-column coordinate boring machine is the table width.
Horizontal coordinate boring machine: The worktable can make a rotary motion in the horizontal plane, and the feed motion can be realized by the longitudinal movement of the worktable or the axial movement of the main shaft. Its processing accuracy is high.
King Kong trampoline
The feature is a very small feed rate and very high cutting speed for machining. Therefore, the machined workpiece has a high dimensional accuracy (IT6) and the surface roughness can reach 0.2 μm.
Precise boring boring machine using tools such as diamond or carbide.
Deep hole drilling boring machine
The deep hole drilling boring machine itself has strong rigidity, good precision, a wide range of spindle speeds, and the feed system is driven by AC servo motor, which can adapt to the needs of various deep hole machining processes. The oil cooler is tightly fastened and the workpiece is tightly closed with a hydraulic device. The meter display is safe and reliable. The following types of work can be selected: 1. Workpiece rotation, tool rotation and reciprocating feed movement, suitable for drilling and small diameter boring; 2. Workpiece rotation, the tool does not rotate only for reciprocating motion, suitable for large diameter hole And nesting processing; 3. The workpiece does not rotate, tool rotation and reciprocating feed motion, suitable for drilling of complex workpieces and small diameter drilling and small diameter boring.
The work piece is placed on the landing table and the column moves longitudinally or laterally along the bed. For machining large workpieces.
There are also milling and boring machines that can be milled, or deep hole drilling boring machines for drilling.